This study examines the attitudes and opinions between college students and advertising presence on social networks, as well as how this demographic receives its information. In addition, the study also examines how intensively embedded these social networks are in the lives of their users, and how willing they are to share certain information about themselves. Research proves that there is a strong bond between college students and not only use of social networks, but trust and association as well. The research also showed that a majority of this demographic shows willingness to share certain information about themselves to a company in order to receive some benefit from the advertiser. Respondents, however, showed opposition to location based marketing through GPS oriented social networks. Finally, the research details three reoccurring factors – interactivity, place, and incentive – that respondents felt made social marketing successful.
Social networks like Facebook, Twitter, and others have grown to become the largest communities on earth, and spread amongst almost every demographic. The original demographic of college students, however, remains possibly the most loyal users of these networks. One these communities they share an array of variant information regarding their lifestyles, interests, opinions, thoughts, and almost any other information that comes to mind. This sharing of information has created the most hype for these networks, allowing a new means of connection not achievable before.
Perhaps, these networks’ primary appeal lies within their ease of socializing. They create a simpler way to connect with others and share information. This makes the social process not only easier, but also more accessible. Researchers at Michigan State University found, through a study of students, that social networks in fact build social capital, which in turn creates a feeling of better well being (Ellison). Social capital is usually built through physically keeping contact with people through different means; however, the creation of social networks has changed this concept and made it easier to accumulate. It can be believed that because this increase in self-esteem, individuals using social networks have formed a unique bond with them, which may in turn change the way they receive and deliver information.
The concept of social networks has evolved over time and changes almost every other month with introduction to new technologies and ideas. A growing trend today is location based social networks that allow users to update their locations to friends. This is achieved through the use of a smart phone as well as account. Networks like foursquare uses this technology to allow individuals to share their whereabouts with friends, and at the same time earn rewards and points based on their location. This new form of social media is less popular than Twitter and Facebook; however, it is catching on among its target demographic. In fact, it has caught on so much within the past year that Facebook as implemented the technology into its site with Facebook Places. This allows people to post their location straight to their wall and allow their friends to “like” and comment on it. This exemplifies another trend among social networks in that they borrow from one another. For example, with the growth of Twitter, Facebook copied the concept of sharing ideas and added it to their layout.
Possibly one of the largest changes in social networks is the introduction of advertisements. As stated before, the rise in social networks may have greatly altered the way people receive and transmit information. This is evident in advertising on social networks. Although many have yet to utilize ad revenue, the main network, Facebook, has used it extensively over the past couple of years. There are multiple techniques used to advertise on the web site. One involves using Facebook’s large amount of date about individuals to place relevant advertisements on the web site’s main pages. This is a more traditional approach compared to others being used. Another, less traditional approach, is creating fan pages that users can subscribe to in order to learn more about certain products.
In order for this new interactive form of communication between advertiser and consumer to work, we must first gain a better knowledge of the attitudes among this market. In order to do this, we must examine why this market uses these social networks, as well as their attitudes towards this new form of advertising. Finally we must know how willing this group is in regards to sharing their information with marketers.
Users of networks like Facebook, Twitter, and others regard this form of media differently than others like television, radio, and print. Because of this reason, advertisers must change the way they communicate with these individuals. With the creation of Facebook has come a creation of a new culture that seems to fit the original, college demographic. This change in communication has altered many people's perceptions of their environment, which in turn alters their feelings towards the site and each others. The rise of the social network has changed many norms as observed by multiple researches. many factors go into play when observing what made the web site the success as it exists today; however, one of the main factors is its ability to actually lift social capital, something that continues to keep Facebook's loyal following (Valenzuela). Advertisers have discovered the many benefits that come with using the social network, but must take many factors into consideration in order to produce successful campaigns by fulfilling the information needs of consumers. Marketers must remember that Facebook and other social networks are a different animal compared to other media vehicles.
Although it has been commonly misunderstood that social media possesses many negative attributes by detach social interactions, multiple researches disagree. Some even argue that the site increases social capital: the amount of resources to communication an individual has. Naturally, with more social capital, the higher the self-satisfaction (Valenzuela). The creation of Facebook is completely reshaping and creating a new form of interaction, which spawns a higher feeling of connection to others. In a study done at the University of Texas, researches observed that individuals who fell more connected to their surroundings possess a higher life satisfaction than those who do not. Facebook has created an easier way for individuals to both communicate and connect to others, lifting, according to their research, individual self-esteem and satisfaction (Valenzuela). The study showed that a correlation existed between the intensity use of Facebook and life satisfaction among college students (Valenzuela). Because of the satisfaction created by the site it can be safely assumed that this transcended to the trust placed into the web site as it becomes more interlaced with the persons daily life. This in turn produces trust to the social network site, which advertisers could utilize to build trust within their brand. A similar study at Michigan State University found similar results in the use of Facebook, Friendster, and other sites and how it correlates with increasing social capital. The study also showed that by increasing social capital from using social networks one increases their social well being (Ellison 1145). This increase in well being serves as the social network's main factor in why users accept them as part of their daily activity. One of the main goal of advertisers is to involve themselves within their user's everyday lives; however, they must be cautious when doing so in social networks.
Advertisers greatly increased advertising and public relations activity on Facebook since late 2007 due to Facebooks introduction of the Beacon advertising system, which allowed for the creation of pages. Some advertisers saw success, while many saw failure. The common trend among those who failed were their inability to adapts and conform to the established social norms created by the users (Vorvoreanu 67). Because users are sensitive to these social norms, advertisers must use relationship management in order to not ignore certain factors within the demographics culture. Research shows that one of the main factors for the use of Facebook is that it is personal, something they separate from business and other aspects of life (Vorvoreanu 74). This demographic believes that their page is their own and a part of their private lives, despite the fact that the page is public and relatively permanent. To the users, however, the page has become such a large part of their daily interactions that they believe it to be a factor of their personal lives (Vorvoreanu 74). This presents a major downside to advertisers in that because individuals hold such the web site as part of their personal lives, they do not perceive it as a means to communicate with business. That is unless the business correlates with their likes, which they publicly boast on their pages (Vorovreanu 75). Another trend found in the research is the higher acceptance of small businesses over large businesses (Vorvreanue 75). The study shows that students felt a more personal touch from small businesses as well as non-profits. This was, however, if the small business was familiar to the students (Vorvreanue 76).
One of the major drawbacks for large corporations was that students found them to be "faceless," according to the research findings (Vorvreanue 77). Students, however, felt more engagement towards large corporate advertising if they were offered certain buying incentives to product that match their likes. This can be accomplished in two ways. One, utilize Facebook's advertising system that directly links advertisements with user interests and geographic location. This directly brings the student an advertisement matching their likes. Two, use deals that correlate to the student's interest. These advertisements can come in different forms like news feed-- which is free-- and the right hand side of the screen -- which is paid for. One of the most common misinterpretations by advertisers is that by using Facebook they mold their image into being hip, cutting-edge, or trendy. The problem with this, according to a focus group within a study, was that users are aware of these advertisers intentions, and in effect are turned off by the advertisement (Vorvreanue 78). Students felt that by simply having a presence on Facebook did not create an advantage for advertisers. Perhaps the largest draw back of large corporate presence on Facebook decreases the feeling of exclusivity, a main factor in what attracted many of the original users. Corporations who are aggressive and fail to link personal touches within their Facebook advertising may find a negative effect within their campaigns.
By observing these downfalls of advertisers we can better create more efficient marketing on social networks like Facebook. Strategies differ depending on what social network one chooses to use. For example, an effective tactic on Foursquare may be completely useless on twitter. One of the main factors in successfully reaching is blending in with the social atmosphere. Students feel disconnected, according to the research studies, and by making advertisements more personal, as well as introducing more interaction among users, a greater acceptance may arise.
As observed, users of social networks possess a different attitude towards the media than that of other medias; thus, advertisers must understand which ways they have been trying to reach them are effective and which are not. Some methods may cause a counter productive result, while others may be favorable. Advertisers must also understand the main purposes behind using social networks and how important these networks are as means of gathering information. Basically, does the college demographic have a favorable attitude towards social marketing, and which methods prove most effective? Do these individuals actively participate with these advertisers, or do they simply ignore them.
Another issue that arrives is privacy, and how much the college demographic is willing to give up to enjoy certain amenities on these networks. Marketers have the ability to learn a lot about their target markets within the college demographic; however, they must know what this group finds comfortable and what they find too intrusive. This involves understanding just how much information this group is willing to share. It also involves understanding what will cause this group to share more information. Some may find the sharing of information with marketers to be.
Finally, I would like to understand if this group relies on social networks and other online vehicles for information more or less than they do other medias. If this is true than perhaps advertisers could be better reaching these individuals on a vehicle they visit daily as opposed to more traditional means such as television, newspapers or magazines.
In order to obtain information from this demographic, an online questionnaire was created featuring ten questions focusing on users status, use of social networks, sources of information, feelings towards online marketers, and attitudes towards information being shared with advertisers. The were created using Survey Monkey, an online survey web site that allows users to create their own survey and distribute them both online and through hard copy. The surveys were specifically distributed to those using social networks and to those within the college networks on these websites. This was done in order to pin-point only social network users in order to get a better understanding of the target demographic. Because the survey is online and can be distributed through the social networks I am observing, I reach the demographic I am specifically targeting more efficiently. It also allows easier access to those I hope to reach, as well as real time results.
The end of the survey featured and open ended question that allowed the respondent to express how he or she feels in his or her own words. This allows more analysis and insight that may not be simply achieved through data from the other questions. Some questions asked for more than one response, while others asked for users to rate certain aspects of social networks based on their opinion. One question asks respondents to divide out of 100 and distribute to multiple categories of usage in social networks, weighing which they feel most important. The final question was open-ended and gave respondents the ability to describe, in their words, how they feel about social network marketing.
The primary network for distributing survey was through Facebook, considering it is by far the largest and contains a better concentration of the demographic I hope to test. I also used other networks such as Twitter in order to not create bias towards those who prefer one network to the others. The survey was closed December 9, 2010 and the results were then analyzed and reported. The results were also compared to previous research in the area of marketing on social networks.
Eighty different individuals responded to the request to fill out the survey. Although surveys were distributed equally without focus on gender, out of these respondents, 25% were male, while 55% were female. This figure may suggest an opinion bias of females; however, after individually examining respondents’ surveys, it was noticed that answers among males and females featured little differences. In fact, it seemed both males and females shared proximal opinions regarding various aspects of social networks and marketing. The only difference seemed that more females put emphasis on magazines as a source of information rather than males. Regardless, almost every other response fell close to each other.
One of the main questions created through secondary research was just how involved users of social networks within this demographic were. The results showed that 88.8% considered social networks to be part of their daily lives. The other 12% said they visit social networks every other day, and 0% said they rarely or never visit social networks.
As the chart shows, the overwhelming majority of respondents consider social networks to be part of their daily lives.
The majority of those within the group who use social networks daily, 60% responded they constantly visit them and 28% said they visit them at least once or twice a day. This demonstrates the point brought up in secondary research that users of these networks consider them as part of their daily activities. This proved ever more evident when asked where respondents receive most of their daily information.
Although cable, newspapers, radio, and other forms of traditional media are considered to be the main sources of information in the United States, the data collected proves contradictory to this belief among this demographic. Respondents were asked to rank where they receive their daily information with 1 being their primary source and 7 being their least sought after source. In fact, most traditional media such as television, radio and newspapers ranked last. Respondents stated that they use magazine the least when gathering their information, with radio coming in second to last and newspapers coming in third to last. Cable news and local news—regional broadcast news—came close to each other. Cable news’s—CNN, Fox News, MSNBC, etc.—average response was 3.79 while local news was 3.8. This suggests that people within this demographic may view television vehicles to be similar. It also shows that television as a whole ranks above newspapers, radio, and magazines.
The top two sources of information this demographic chose as their primary source of information was online media and social networks.
Respondents were asked to rank their sources of information with 1 being their primary source and 7 being their least sought after source. The smaller the bars, the lower the average, thus, on average, the more people ranked nline news and social networks as their primary source of information.
The above chart illustrates how individuals, on average, rely more on social media and online media for information more than any other form of media. This shows that in order to better reach these individuals marketers must put more focus on these areas that this demographic uses to obtain information. It also illustrates a point made in the study at Michigan State that individuals who use these social networks have formed a trusting bond being that this group relies more on social networks like Facebook and Twitter for more information than other forms of media. It also suggests the sense of community that is created. But not everybody is using only Facebook.
Respondents were also asked to pick from a list which social networks they use. The list consisted of 11 of the top social networks as well as an other section. These social networks included Facebook and Twitter as well as GPA oriented networks such as Foursquare and Gowalla. The results featured little surprise with 100%--all 80 individuals who took the survey-- of the respondents stating they use Facebook. The second most used social network, with 28 respondents, was Twitter, and the third most used was LinkedIn with 15 respondents. This data suggests that although many individuals use an array of different social networks, they all share a link in Facebook.
As far as location-based network, Gowalla had two respondents while foursquare had nine. This may show a drag in the use of location-oriented usage of social networks. Facebook also contains a location based form of communication with Facebook Places which allows users to check into places similar to Gowalla and Foursquare; however, further research shows users still do not consider this a part of their daily usage of social networks. In fact when asked why individuals use social networks in an another question, sharing whereabouts ranked last being connecting with brands This may be a problem for companies investing in the new possibilities associated with these sites. Then again, this form of social networks is relatively new compared to other forms.
Respondents were asked to divide out of 100 and distribute to different categories what they find most important about social networks. The options included connecting with friends, sharing interests, sharing thoughts, sharing location, and connecting with interests (such as brands, celebrities, etc). The following graph illustrates where respondents on average divide their interest when using social networks.
As illustrated above, the primary use of social networks is connecting with acquaintances, which averaged at 57.46. This again proves that individuals view social networks as more of a community, thus feeling a tie to this form of communication. It also proves that although these individuals claim it is one of their main sources of information, it at the same time is not used primarily for information. In face sharing thoughts and interests ranked above gathering information and keeping up with brands and connecting to interests. Searching for information did, however, rank above sharing location, but still averaged as a low fraction of the main intent of using social networks.
Respondents felt polarized when discussing how they felt about advertisements and marketers on Facebook. One question asked respondents to rank how they feel about marketers from 1 to 10 in certain areas. The results showed a split in opinion. On average, this demographic ranked intrusiveness as 6.51, with 10 being very intrusive and 1 being not at all. They also ranked on average that these advertisements were somewhat relatable, useful, and interactive. Respondents did however show that they felt they were not misplaced. Even in the comments respondents showed a split in how they felt about advertisements specifically aimed towards them. One commenter wrote:
“Somethings (sic) that are offered are either skewed or mistargeted (sic). For example, when I did not have a interest in men or women on my facebook profile, I would get a disproportional amount of men seeking men type advertisements. I do not know whether this is a pick up in the algorithms they use, or to fulfill their contract with the individual advertisers…” (142)
This type of response was common among many of the responses when asked to write how they feel about marketers on Facebook in their own words. For example here is another quote from a respondent regarding this targeting:
“If they do it tactfully, it is welcome. If it is just intrusive, it ruins the experience, and makes me hate the brand.” (128)
This shows that users of social networks are open to this marketing; however, marketers must do so in a tactful manner in order to not garner negative, or counterproductive responses. In fact, from the comments, many respondents feel that they favored interactive pages and connections over simple advertisements placed on the side of the screen. Respondents claim this adds a sense of community. This ties to previous research that shows users buy into advertisers who become part of the community rather than simply standing as static billboards like they do in other mediums. This difference in creative thinking may separate a successful campaign to an unfavorable one.
Forming a community among target markets is crucial for advertisers using social media. Along with how users utilize their time on social networks, respondents were also asked whom they prefer to connect with online. Users were asked how they feel about certain businesses on Facebook and Twitter, and to pick all that applied. According to the data, users overwhelmingly preferred brands they relate to as well as brands that fit their lifestyles. Forty-five respondents picked brands they relate too and 41 (many possibly being the same respondent) chose brands that fit their lifestyles. As far as the difference between big brands and local brands, users chose local brands over larger ones. In fact, larger brands received the least amount of votes among respondents. This date matches up with previous research that showed more of a connection between social network users and local brands as compared to larger brands.
Local brands prove more favorable than larger brands. Respondents also expressed their favorability towards brands that both fit their lifestyles and that they relate to.
This may show limitations for larger brand that may need to be more creative. It may also show that larger brands must form a local, interactive feel with its target audience. It also shows that a majority of users show favorable opinion to certain brands online. Only 25 respondents felt that advertising has no place on social networks, and, surprisingly, only 18 (many of which may be the same respondent) felt that social network advertising was too intrusive. This gives a glimpse into how users feel about privacy online.
A big concern regarding social networks is the concept of privacy. One of the marketers goals is to better understand the individuals and social networks allow marketers to gather information. For example, many games and applications on Facebook can be accessed by individuals without paying, but instead agreeing to allow the third party to gather data from the user’s profile. Another concern is the use of advertisers directly marketing to individuals based on their interests. But then again, social networks were created for the sole purpose of connecting and information sharing; thus, the question arises: are users willing to give up certain information to marketers. The results of this question were rather surprising. Despite all this controversy regarding privacy, the majority of respondents replied that they would be willing to give up their information to marketers.
Respondents show that they would be willing to give up information to marketers for an incentive.
Although the majority appears to have answered that they would not give up information to an advertiser, when adding those who responded yes and maybe, the data shows that most individuals are willing to share their information. The data still suggests that users are generally split on their opinions and attitudes towards privacy.
Generally, according to the data, many will be willing to share their personal interests and other information for an incentive. That means access to a game or other functions on Facebook. This could be useful for marketers in creatively reaching individuals as well as gathering data that can fuel targeting for future campaigns. This goes back to respondents feeling more favorable to interactive advertisements as opposed to static messages.
“I understand that advertisers are a necessary evil to social networks, but that the main purpose should be social.” (76)
Basicly, for an advertiser to effectively reach these users they must be social in intent. They must also, however, offer incentives which proves to be a motif among respondents.
Incentives such as special offers were favored very strongly among users of social networks. As the following graph will illustrate, when asked if they would use a special offer if offered by a brand.
Out of the 80 respondents, 62 (78.5%) stated they would use social networks to gain a special offer from an advertiser. Advertisers should combine this form of advertising and promotion with social networks in order to obtain their target audiences. This can also be used to gather a community. Companies, however, must be careful in how they use special offers and connecting with users. While it is nice to post updates to be interactively involved in a community, they must still understand the right amount of sharing information.
“I cant stand it when companies clog up my feed. I do like companies that give specials through being a fan.” (111)
The final question asked respondents to give their opinion of online advertising in their own words. After reading through all the responses, it appears user opinions match that of the data.
As far as privacy, users expressed polar opposite views, and many even felt split:
To much of anything can turn me off. Especially the ones that are flashing to get your attention. The small one on the sides aren't too intrusive. (79)
It is a great market. That is the fastest way to reach people now. (80)
Neutral - do not care one way or another. (72)
It varies based upon the advertiser. Some have figured out ways to achieve interaction, however others seem to solely just want your information which is obnoxious. (141)
Others gave a more negative response to marketers on Facebook and other social networks, pointing to them being too intrusive and misplaced:
I find them annoying. I think social networks are meant to be a personal connection between people and not a place for advertisers. Yes, it's effective for the advertiser to find a place where many people go in order to get noticed, but social networks should not be that place. (136)
I really don't like advertising on social networks. It makes me feel uneasy that they know so many things about my life, that they can advertise specifically for who I am.
It's overkill. We get enough advertising in other media. (85)
Still, regardless of some of the negative comments, users generally feature a neutral view. Some even acknowledge the potential and purpose, others even consider them useful.
Social Network marketing will continue to grow overtime as the utility it presents to brands becomes more revealing. If used successfully, brands can gain loyal, cult followings that allow them to spread their message and form a community of users. If used poorly, brands can instead create negative images that will not only hurt them but social networks as well. Data shows that users hold favorable opinions to brands that fall within the social network as opposed to sticking out as advertisers trying to sell. Social networks were created for the purpose of forming a community among individuals to share interest, thoughts, and a sense of communication. Users of social networks form strong bonds between how they communicate online and how they communicate in the real world. Because of this, users view their networks as communities rather than simple pages of information. Because of this, this demographic has shifted their sources of information from traditional to online, which can be useful for those companies wishing to start social networking campaigns to reach their target audience. The main difference between favorable and unfavorable advertising messages seems based on four distinctive factors: interactivity, place and incentive. All of these factors lead to a community feel that go back to the original purpose of these networks. Marketers who fail to follow these factors potentially risk unsuccessful promotion based on respondents from this research, and research before it.
1. One of the main concerns regarding users of social networks is the problem of intrusiveness that brands can create. For larger brands, they can set up a negative rapport among its users if they present themselves as sole advertisers. A key way around this shortcoming is the use of interactivity. As pointed out in the research, social networks are a main form of gathering information. Many may do this by becoming fans or following brands the same way they follow friends, celebrities and opinion leaders. For a company to successfully reach these users they must form a equilibrium between promotion and community with these users. Respondents seemed to favor companies that offer interaction, stating that this in turn creates a means of information gathering. This can greatly distinguish one brand from another; however, as research shows, users prefer smaller brands over larger brands.
Larger brands can overcome this disadvantage through more interaction with users. This may in turn create a more community feeling as opposed to users perceptions focusing on the size of the company. Chipotle, for example, is one of the largest brands followed on Facebook, despite being a relatively large franchise. They break the mold of unfavorable opinion of being a larger business by setting up interactions with users by allowing them to comment on the wall as well as respond to concerns or discussions. They also allow a fair amount of leniency on responses. Companies that use this form of communication mold their image into something part of the social network rather than a third party advertisers.
This goes along with previous research that suggested the same technique. Consumers feel more comfortable and accepting to brands that use social networks the way they were intended. By using networks as pure means of promotion without setting up any interactivity, brands risk users turning them off, they also risk delivering too much information that will in turn be ignored. This goes back to a company finding equilibrium between advertisings and “social networking.” They need to become part of the network and its virtues in order to be welcomed by the users.
2. Earlier I discussed how users were asked to pick on a scale of 1 to 10 how they felt about social network marketing in multiple categories. The results on average were basically split down the middle with users showing either split opinions or neutral opinions. One of the only responses that featured an more of a polar opinion was regarding how well placed advertising on social networks is. According to the results, more respondents believed that social network advertising was properly placed. This can greatly increase the amount of attention users can have towards marketers.
Users enjoy well-placed advertisements that relate to their interest. This serves as one of the main benefits of using social networks is the ability to strategically place a message where only the target market will reach it, and not individuals that fall from whom the brand will reach. Users showed a negative attitude towards advertisements that did not relate to their interest, but felt more positive towards those that were relevant. This is another factor that differentiates a successful campaign from an unsuccessful campaign. It also goes back to advertisers knowing how to be part of the network and knowing how to blend in. In advertising, place forms a pivotal function in the impact of an advertisement message. The same proves true in social network advertising.
3. The final reoccurring factor deals with incentive. Users of social network within this demographic responded overwhelmingly favorable to incentive. The same results match those previous result from other studies where special offers gained more attention than brands not offering anything. Data also showed that users would be willing to use these special offers if presented, as well as even give up certain information for incentives based on what is being offered.
Too much incentive may even be a problem, however, considering that by constantly promoting offers an advertiser will suffer being viewed as a marketing tool. Companies must be creative in incentives they offer and directly relate them to the users of the social network. This means offering incentives that will only be offered to the community in the network rather than to everybody. Many successful social marketing brands do this regularly. They understand that by offering incentives to these social network users they may form a bond within a community, creating a distinction between them and competitors.
Before advertising online, companies must understand the market they hope to successfully target. And to understand this market, they must first comprehend these pivotal factors of social network marketing. Failure to do so in turn creates unsuccessful advertising. Overtime more will be learned about marketing on social networks, but strategies must first start with the user. The college demographic is open to these marketers as long as the brands respect the community social networks create. After doing that, reaching this demographic may obtain much success and a better bond between the company and the target market. Abuse of this new form of marketing, however, will obtain negative results, and may even prove counter productive. The success of the campaign depends on the decisions the brand makes.
Ellison, Nicole B. Steinfield, Charles. Lampe, Cliff. "The Benefits of Facebook "Friends:" Social Capital and College Student's Use of Online Social Network Sites." Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication. Jul 2007, Vol. 12 Issue 4. http://web.ebscohost.com/ehost/detail?vid=3&hid=108&sid=c7fb072a-485f-4c6e-914c-0096ef04cf69%40sessionmgr114&bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWhvc3QtbGl2ZQ%3d%3d#db=cax&AN=26313783
Valenzuela, Sebastian. Park, Namsu. Kee, Kerk F. "Is there Social Capital in a Social Network Site?: Facebook Use and College Student's Life Satisfaction, Trust, and Participation." Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication. http://web.ebscohost.com/ehost/detail?vid=3&hid=108&sid=c7fb072a-485f-4c6e-914c-0096ef04cf69%40sessionmgr114&bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWhvc3QtbGl2ZQ%3d%3d#db=cax&AN=43522887
Vorvoreanu, Dr. Mihaela. "Perceptions of Corporations on Facebook: An Analysis of Facebook Social Norms." Journal of New Communications Research. Vol. IV Issue 1: Spring/Summer 2009. http://web.ebscohost.com/ehost/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?vid=2&hid=108&sid=a6c05c3e-0c1d-403f-9bd5-de663cca3d9a%40sessionmgr113